“This chapter looks at the ways that teachers create social and physical environments for learning, by examining classroom management” (Woolfolk & Margetts, 2013, p. 398).
- Describe, discuss and understand the ‘four goals of classroom management’ as described by Woolfolk & Margetts (2013, p 399).
1. Allocated time; that is, maximising the number of minutes available for learning – this time must be used effectively and spent engaged with the topic or acitivty!
2. Enagagement in worthwhile, appropriate learning
3. Access and understanding; ensuring students have acces to what they need to learn and making sure students know how to participate successfully in given activities. This could be in a sense of class discussion with the structure of the discussion (who can talk and when, and what they can or cannot say) being made clear by a teacher and ensuring a student knows these unspoken rules or values so they can participate appropriately. Scaffolding discussion by changing the way people are arranged (at the fron of the class or in a circle) and prompting with questions to encourage discussion.
4. Self management; the movement from demanding obedience to teaching self regulation or self-control. Through self-control, students demonstrate responsibility – the ability to fulfil their own needs without interfering with the rights and needs of others (Glasser 1990, cited Woolfolks & Margetts, 2013)
- Review the section “Creating a positive learning environment”. Understand and explain the value of; procedures and routines, rules, consequences and rights and responsibilities. (p. 401)Procedures refers to the way things are done in a classroom setting, with multiple occurances to be considered and made a routine for.Administrive routines; taking attendence, how assignments are collected or how homework is retruned – students should be made aware of these routines to save time and so things are always done the same way.Student movement; entering, leaving or going to the bathroom – make students aware of how these will be done appropriately.
Housekeeping; maintaining the classroom plants or pets or storing personal items, everyone should be involved and aware of these aspects of the classroom (perhaps have a rotation roster of who does certain jobs each day).
Routines for accomplished lessons; students should know what is needed to be done for the class, and the allowances they have such as movement in or out the room or switching seating arrangements.
Interactions between teacher and student; students should be told the appropriate way to get a teacher’s attention when help is needed, and the appropriate times to do so for the right reasons.
Talk among students; students should be taught what is appropriate discssion and when discussion can occur for either helping or socializing.
Rules should specify expected actions in particular settings, as they are the “dos & don’ts” of classroom life. Unlike procedures, rules are often written down and displayed (Woolfolk & Margetts, 2013). Rules will assist in guiding student behaviour as well as protecting people’s rights, safety, health and wellbeing as well as school facilities (Woolfolk & Margetts, 2013). Students are more likelt to follow rules they understand and are aware of the importance of. A study also found rules that stated what a student should do were more effective than rules saying what not to do.
Secondary examples from Emmer & Evertson (2009)
1. Bring all needed materials to class (as specified by the teacher)
2. Be in your seat and ready to work when the bell rings
3. Respect and be polite to all people (this covers fighting, verbal abuse and includes the teacher)
4. Listen quietly and stay seated while someone is speaking
5. Respect other people’s property (the school, teacher or other students)
6. Obey all school rules (which covers many behaviours and situations – know your school’s rules)
Consequences are what will happen when rules or routines are not followed. Consequences should be decided on before a rule is broken and told to the student’s so they are aware of what breaking a rule or not following a procedure will mean for them. Often it will be having to go back and do it again (put away equipment left out, return to a spot and walk rather than run etc.)
Weinstein, Romano and Mignano (2011) found penalties teachers used fell into seven categories:
1. Expressions of disappointment
2. Loss of privileges
3. Exclusion from the group
4. Written reflections on problems
6. Visits to the principle’s office
7. Contact with parents
Developing rights and responsibilities rather than rules makes a very important point to students; rights also cover most situations that require a ‘rule’ and help students toward becoming self-managing (Woolfolk & Margetts, 2013).
“Teaching students that something is wrong because there is a rule against it is not the same as teaching them there is a rule against it because it is wrong, and heling them to understand why” (Weinstein, 1999, p. 154) When students contribute to making rules and consequences of not meetingthem, they are more likely to follow them and reinforce them as well as take responsibility for their behaviour.
- Describe and understand the extremely important (yet very simple) concept of “Participation Structures”.In order for students to participate successfully in a given activity, students must understand the participation structe – that is, how to participate (WOOLFolkf). This ensures all students have access to activities – the key is wawareness of rules, expectations and values, spoken or unspoken within the classroom
- Study Kounin’s model of classroom management carefully. Explain in as much detail as is possible the key elements of the model. Explore its value to the classroom teacher. (p. 410)Kounin’s work focusses on preventitive discipline; techniques and strategies designed to prevent the occurnace of discipline problems in the first place. Good classroom management depends on effective lesson management. Key techniques and ideas within his theory are:
Ripple effect which occurs when the teacher corrects a misbehaviour in one student, positively influences other students nearby through observation. It is more effective if the misbehaviour in named and gives reason
Withitness (being with it) is the teachers awareness of what is going on in all parts of the classroom and communicating this awareness to students. The effectiveness of this technique is increased when a teacher uses eye contact and room scanning to ensure students know they are bing monitored. It also helps in identifying instigators of incidneces, and can often prevent minor disruptions prior to a bigger problem occuring. Teachers should not make timing errors where they wait too long to intevene or target areas where they punish the worng student, implying to the class they don’t relly know what is going on
Overlapping is the ability to attend to two issues at once, often resolving the more severe problem first. Students are more likely to stay on tsk if they know the teacher is aware of what thet are doing
Maintinaing focus means keeping track of and supervising several avtivites at a time whilst keeping as many students as possible involved in learning. All students should have somthing to do during lessons
Satiation refers to being satisfied or having enough, which may be due to boredom and may cause students to create excitement through fooling around or misbehaving. Ways to prevent satiation are:
Providing students with a feling of progress
Offering students challenges during the lesson
Using different teaching styles to add variety
- Responding to inappropriate or disruptive behaviour. Review the work by Rogers (2011) and Levin and Nolan (2010). Suggest simple and assertive ways to stop inappropriate behaviour, moving quickly from least to most intrusive. Know the steps and sequenceBeing an effective teacher-manager does not mean publicly correcting every minor infraction of the rules, this may actually reinforce the inappropriate behaviour (Woolfolks & Margetts 2012). The steps to stop inappropriate behaviour are:
Make eye contact with the student, or move closer to them. Other non-verbal cues could be pointing to the work. Make sure the student stops the behaviour, if you do not, they will learn to ignor your signals
Verbal hints such as name-dropping or asking the student a question
Tell students the negative effects of their actions either on themselves or others or the environement or equipment
Remind students of the procedure and then to follow them. You may need to quietly collect the item that is possible competing with learning activities and inform they can have it back after class
Tell the student to stop the behaviour in an assertive and non-hostile way. For example – “Madeleine, you’re talking. Others cannot hear what Wen-jing is saying. Please be quiet”. If the student talks back, repeat the instruction
Offer a choice for the student to make – either they follow your instruction or they endure a consequence such as being moved in the room or attending class during recess
When imposing penalties, guidelines should be followed. Taken from Weinstein (2007) and Weinstein, Romano and Mignano (2011):
Delay the discussion of the situation until you and the students involved are calmer and more objective. Example: “Sit there and think about what happened. I will talk to you in a few minutes” or on a larger scale, “I’m really angry about what just occured. Everybody take out your journals. Write down what you think happened” and after a few minutes of writing, the class can discuss the incident
Impose penalties privately. Make arrangements with students privately and enforce these arrangements. Avoid the temptation to remind them in public of this arrangement. Move close to the student who must be disciplined and speak so only that student can hear
After imposing a penalty, re-establish a positive relationship with the student immediately. Send the student on an errand or ask them for help. Compliment the student’s work or give a real or symbolic ‘pat on the back’ when their behaviour warrants
Set up a graded list of penalties that will fit many occasions. For not handing in homework: (1) recieve reminder, (2) recieve warning, (3) hand homework in before end of day, (4) stay after school to finish, (5) participate in a teacher-student-parent conference to develop an action plan
- Maintaining a good environment for learning. Creating a caring community
- Describe the role of the teacher as a model. Prepare to discuss this section and table 11.5. (p. 416)Teachers who posses the skills to create positive relationships, solver interpersonal problems and manage conflict develop a classroom culture that fosters the growth of these skills in students. If we want to promote positive social dynamics in the classroom, we need to consider what we, as teachers, model in our behaviour (Woolfolk & Margetts 2012)
- Describe and explain “empathetic (active) listening”. (p. 419)Empathetic listening is hearing the intent and emotions behind what another says and reflecting them back by paraphrasing.
- Describe and explain “assertive responses”. (p. 420)Assertive response is a clear, firm statement about what is expected in relation to student behaviour. Ineffective teachers are either wishy-washy and passive, or hostile and aggresive. Asserive responses communicate to students that teachers care too much about them and the process of learning to allow inappropriate behaviour to persist.
- Describe and explain “Authoritative Teaching” and its value in the classroom.Authoritative teaching is a classroom management style that provides firm, realistic boundaries for your child in a compassionate way. An authoritative teacher focuses on maintaining high standards and projecting genuine warmth – this is valuable in the classroom for creating student-teacher relationships, expecations, rules and procedures and consequences that create the overall classroom environment for effective learning.